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官方网站——AnalysisBasedontheInputOutputTableofChinafrom1987to2002ByLiShantong,DepartmentofDevelopmentStrategyandRegionalEconomyofDRCGaoChuansheng(TsinghuaUniversity)ResearchReport034,2007Producerserviceshavebecomethefocusofcurrentindustrialinternationalcompetitionandmajorvalue-addedandprofitpointintheglobalvaluechains(GVC).TheenhancementoftheirdevelopmentwillbetheimportantorientationforfacilitatingChina,someproblemsChinaseconomyhasencountered,suchasthechangeofextensivegrowthandlackofkeytechnologyandworld-famousbrandsinindustry,havetobesolvedthroughthedevelopmentandupgradingofproducerservices;ontheotherhand,thecurrenteconomydevelopmentpatterndominatedbymanufacturingindustrywithoutthesupportofacompleteandfunctionalproducerservicessystem,ha,r,basedontheinputoutputtableofChinafrom1987to2002,thisarticledefinesthespecificconnotationofproducerservicesinChina,evaluatesitsdevelopmentlevelandactualgrowthrate,andfurtheranalyzesitsinternalstructure,inanattempttoprovidebasicprinciplestoboostthetransitionandupgradingofChina(hereinaftermentionedasPS),oppositetoconsumerservicesthatdirectlysatisfytheultimateconsumptionneeds,areacategoryofservicesbasedonservicefunctions1,referringto"thoseservicesallocatedforothercommodityproducersandserviceprovidersastheintermediateinput"(GrubelWalker,1989),ultsofdomesticandforeignscholars,wedivideproducerservicesintotwodifferentapproaches:(1)inanarrowsense,wheretheterm"producerservices"aremostfrequentlyused,itreferstothoseservicesprovidedfortheprimary,secondaryandtertiaryindustriesasanintermediateinput,namely,the"producers"thatPSaimedatrefertoallindustries,heinputoutputdiagram,namely,thehorizontalpartusedforvariousindustriesasanintermediateinput;(2)inabroadsense,allservicesnotdedicatedtosatisfytheultimateconsumptionneedsofconsumersareproducerservices,wherethe"producers"beingsatisfiedincludenotonlyallindustries,butalsogovernment,toftheinputoutputdiagram,namely,thehorizontaldifferenceofthetotalou,therearetwoformsofproducerservices:oneisthenon-independentformthathasnotbeenmarketizedbutinteriorizedinindustriesor(governmentalornon-governmental)bodies,theotheristheindependentformthathasundergonetheprocessofexternalizationandmarketization,namely,thePSindustry,"producerservices":,alargemajorityofindustriesprovideconsumerservicesandproducerservicesatthesametime,raisingtheconfusionthatwhichcategorytheybelongto;,typicalproducerservicesoutsideChinagenerallyincludefinancing,insurance,realestateandbusinessservices(hereinaftermentionedasFIRE).Somedomesticscholarsalsoregardrealestateasoneoftheproducerservices,whichcontradictstheuniquerealityofChina,whererealestatemainlysatisfiesthehabitationneedsofresidentscurrently,ratherthanthe,realestateindevelopedcountriesismainlyusedforrent,accountingforahighpercentageofinvestmentneeds;ersintermediateneedsforservices,,,ifatradeprovidesbothproducerandconsumerservices,,twoindicesareintroduced,namely"theintermediateuserate"and"thenon-residentultimateconsumptionrate",andtheanalysisofinput/tedontheintermediateuseoftheprimary,snupby,"theintermediateuserate"isappropriateforthedefinitionofthePSindustryinitsnarrowsense,while"thenon-residentultimateconsumptionrate"–thePSindustryhasanindexhigherthantheaverage,"Theintermediateuserate"andChinasPSindustryinitsnarrowsenseDefinedby"theintermediateuserate",%,%oftheoutputofserv,s,suchasurbanpublictransportation,restaurants,realestate,tourism,residentservicesandotherservices,education,sanitation,socialsecurityandwelfare,culture,arts,andbroadcasting,moviesandTV,sports,%,,forthereasonslikedatagatheringandthecurrentsituationoftheexpendituresubjectinChina,theintermediateuseratescalculatedforsomeindustries,suchasscientificresearch,professionaltechnologyandothertechnicalservices,managementofenvironmentalresourcesandpublicestablishment,publicmanagementandsocialorganizationandetc.,arenotsuitabletodecidewhichcategorytheyshouldbelongto,thus"thenon-residentultimateconsumptionrate"ishelpful....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.*Aphaseresearchresultof"InteractiveRelationshipbetweenProducerServicesandManufacturingUpgradinginChina",amajorprojectofCIDEG2006ofTsinghuaUniversity,1966andthendevelopedrespectivelybyBrowningSingelmannin1975andSingelmannin1978.ByLinJiabin,,,urbanpopulationhasgrownfrom170milliontonearly600million,,,thefixedassetsinvestmentinurbanareasduringthe1998~,,however,Chinaalsowentthroughaperiodbeforeitsreformandopeningup,duringwhichurbandevelopm,theoldurbandistrictsinmanycitieshavelotsofr,inbothmagnitudeandintensity,theproblemofcityrenewal,scityrenewal,shistoricalandculturallandscapeAfterWorldWarII,somefamouscitiesintheWesterncountries,suchasParis,London,MunichandNewYork,,damagedorundamagedbythewar,enseofhistoryandthehumantouch,ueanddynamicbuildingsandalsothecityculture,“cityrenewal”,,Chi,,atotalof161millionsquaremetersofhousesweredemolished,%ofthe390millionsquaremetersofmarket-tradedhousescompletedinthatyear(LiZhonghui:Massdemolitionandmassconstruction:painsandregrestofChinesecities,PeoplesDaily,,2005).Inthecourseofmassdemolitionandmassconstruction,manyhistoricalbuildingsweredestroyed,includingthosewhichhadhighhistoricalvaluesandwhoserese,somehistoricalandculturalcitieslosttheirmostrepresent,andeventheBritishnewspaperFinancialTimesalsocarriedacommentaryonJune20,,Chinasolddistrictrenovation,thegovernmentinvestedvirtuallynofundsandmainlyreli,oftheresidents,theoldurbandistrictswithprimelocations,lowpopulationandbuildingdensityandgooddevelopmentprospectoftenbecamethefirsttoberenovated,whilethesectionswithout-of-the-waylocationsandahighdensityofdangeroushousesdrewnobodyamshacklehousesintheoldurbandistricts,themajorstakeholdersincludedtheresidents,thegovernment,thedevelopersandthegroupsandindividualsdevotedtooldtownpreservation(hereinafterthepreservationpeople).Differentstakeholdershaddifferentinterestpursuit,thedevelopershadsharpcontradictionswiththeresidhacklehouserenovationprojectsmusteachstrikeafundbalanceandastherelocationexpensesandcompensationsroseyearafteryear,thedevelopersmustfocusonthehigh-intensityandhigh-densitydevelopm,hotelsandcommercialfacilitiesfurtherconcentratedintheolddistricts,thusoverburdeningthesenofthehistoricallandscapesofthesedistrisecurityofthelow-incomegroupsnorthepreservationofthecommonhum,,manycitiesinChinahavefailedtoproperlyhandletherelationsbetweenthegovernmentandthemarketinthecourseofexecutingtheramshacklehouserenovationprojectsintheoldurban,profitmaximizationbecametheprimarygoalandthepublic-interestgoalssuchasthepreservationofcitylandscapesandculturalandhistoricalsitesandtheimprovementofths,urbandistrictshavebeenregardedasthebasicunitsforrundowndistrictrenovationsanouldmobilizetheinitiativeofthedistrictgovernments,thelowstatusofthesedi,thesedistrictshavetoworkalonetosolvetheissuesofdemolition,intoahighlyintensivedevelopmentactandmadeitdifficulttoaccommodateboththepreservationofhistoricalandculturallandscapesandtherenovationoframshacklehouses....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.

LinZeyanLiuLihuiStandardsforidentifyingsci-techinnovationteamsareasigionofidentification,selection,sponsoring,nofsci-techinnovationactivitiesandasignificantmeasureformanagingsci-techinnovation,itisnotonlyrelatedtotheevaluationofindividualsci-techinnovationteams,butisalsoconnectedwiththeconstructionofsci-,inlinewiththetrendofsci-techdevelopment,teamswork-basedscientificinnovationhasbecomethemainstreamofsci-techresearchin,theevaluation,identificationandcultivationofsci-techinnovationteams,,explorationoffeatures,managementmechanismanvationtoteamsinnovation,formulatecriteriaforidentifyingsci-techinnovationteamsthroughpositivestudy,andputforwardpoliciesandrecommendationswithrespecttoidentification,establishment,sSci-techinnovationteamscanbedefinedas"asci-techresearchgroupconsistingofteamsleadersandacertainnumberofsci-techpersonnel,inwhichallmembersmakecreativeachievementswithindependentintellectualrightsthroughlabordivisionandcooperation,undertheguidanceofcommongoalsofsci-techresearchanddevelopment."Takingtheformofteamsmanagement,thetypicalfeaturesofsci-techinnovationteamscanbesummarizedas(1)researchorientationwithdistinctivefeatures,definiteresearchgoalsandgoodsocialreputation;(2)complementaryadvantagesbetweenmembers;(3)mutualrespectandtrustsothatacademicdemocracyandexcellentacademicethicscanbesufficientlyupheld;(4)teamleadershaveexcellentstrategicvisionandcoordinationcapabilities,servingasthemodelforteammemberstofacilitateharmoniousandorderlyoperationofthewholeteams;and(5)capableofproducinginnovationachievementsonsustainablebasis,sinChinaIntheprocessofestablishingsci-techinnovationteamsbysomedomesticauthoritativeagencies,identificationstandardsprimarilyfocusonacademicstatusofteamleaders,innovationofresearchdirectionandinnovativeachievements(Table1).Meanwhile,severalspecialrequirementsareputforwardaccordingtothefeaturesofindividualteamsonthebasis,theNationalNaturalScienceFoundationofChinahasoutlinedspecificrequirementsforeducationalbackgroundsandprofessionaltitlesofteammembers,whiletheMinistryofEducationandtheChineseAcademyofScienceshavemappedbydomesticscientificresearchmanagementorgansandagenciesofvarioustypescanbesummarizedastwocategories,firstly,achievement-basedstandardsforidentification,vationteams,mainlyincludingacademicpapersandworks,patentsofinventions,significantsci-techprojectsparticipatedinandawardsofvarioustypes(includingadmissiontotalentsupportprogram);secondly,circumstantialstandardsforidentification,,researchplatformsandknowledgestorageofsci-techinnovationteams,mainlyincludingtalentstructureandknowledgestructureofteams,scientificresearchinfrastructureandexperimentalcapabilitiesandresearchfees(fairlyprevalentinsomegrass-rootssci-techteams).,fromtheperspectiveofprocessofsci-techinnovationactivities,theabovetwostaticidentificationstandardscannotmeett,someinstitutionsofhigherlearningandscientificresearchagenciesoftenorganizeirrelevantresearchpersonnellackingcooperationbasistoformtemporarysci-techinnovationteamstoapplyforfundsnecessaryforstaticindicators,causi,intheprocessofpre-selectionofexcellentsci-techinnovationteams,dynamicfactorsshallalsobeconsideredinadditiontoinspectionofsuchstaticindicatorsasexistinginnovativecapabilitiesandbasisofsci-techteams,ourDomesticAuthoritativeAgencies

ByZhangYongwei,DevelopmentResearchCenter(DRC)ResearchReportNo120,sWindPowerIndustrySince2003,thecentralgovernmentpromulgatedtheRenewableEnergyLawofPeoplesRepublicofChinaanddrewupChinaRenewableEnergyDevelopmentPlantoimprovethe,aseriesofincentivemeasures,suchasthelaunchofwindpowerfranchiserightsbiddingandfavorablefiscalandtaxpolicies,greatlyenhancedthedevelo,sinstalled,weshouldalsoadmitthatprominentproblemsstillexistintheindustryandtheseproblemshavmechanism;seriousprojectsliceuptowinapprovalanddisorderlywindpowermarket(1)Theplanlac2007proposedtobringinstalledgrosscapacityofwindpowerto5GWin2010,;the11thFive-YearPlanforRenewableEnergyDevelopment,promulgatedin2008,plannedtobringtheinstalledgrosscapacityto10GWin2010,,thewindpowerinstallationplandoesnotfitwellwithotherdevelopmentplanssuchaspowergridconstruction,resourceexploration,,includingtheNationalDevelopmentandReformCommission,NationalEnergyAdministration,ChineseAcademyofSciences,ChineseAcademyofEngineering,theMinistryofScienceandTechnologyandPowerGridCorporation,areallinvolvedinthewindpowerplanning,rketdevelopmentiftherewerenounitedandcoordinatedmediumandlong-termdevelopmentplanofwindpower.(2),theNationalDevelopmentandReformCommissionisinchargeofwindpowerprojectconstructionabove50,000kw,andlocalgovernmentsareresponsiblefortheonesbelow50,,somelocalgovernmentsandinvestmententerprisescircumventthestateapprovalbysplittingbigconstructionplan,000kwcapacityissplitintomorethan6smallerones(Eachonelessthan50,000kw).“Smallwindpowerprojects”directlyapprovedbylocalgovernmentblossomeverywhere,nwillfurtherintensifytheconflictbetweenwindpowerandpowergrids.(3)Projectwinsatenderwithlowpricewhiledeveloperscareforscaleratherthaneffectiveness,andtheypursue“quickstartandlargescale”.Thefactthattheonewhooffersthelowestbiddingpricewillwinthespecialdevelopmentrightsmakedevelopersnottoconsidercurrentprojectbenefit,“enclosemarketsharesbymakingpreemptiveinvestments”and“occupywindenergyresources”.Temptedbytheirrationalinvestmentimpulsion,developersintentionallypulleddowntheirbidrosssubsidization,,evingdiversifiedwindpowerdevelopment,introducinginvestmentthroughmarketmechanismanden,mostenterprisesfailtoimprovetheirowntechnologyanddontownthekeytechnologyWithhugemarketdemandforwindpowerequipmentsandmanufacturingcapacity,Chinanowhasdevelopedacompleteindustrychainforwindpowerequismore,Chinahasmasteredthebasicproducingtechnologyofmegawattwindturbineandcanbatchproducenon-keypartssuchasblade,,localenterprisesinChinahaventmasteredthekeytechnologyinwindturbinedesign,largewindturbinebearing,s,,,intheinternationalmarket,windturbinecontrolsystemoccupieslessthan8%swindturbinecontrolsystemisbasicallyimportedfromDenmarkandAustria,notonlyourcostsaremorethandoubled,butth,lackingnormalmanagementmeasuresforwindpowerfarmconnection,productstandard,certificationandsupervisionAlthoughwindpowerdevelopsrapidlytheseyears,obviouslyitlagsbehsRepublicofChinahasexcessivelylooseregulationsonwindpowergridconnection,whichdoesntmetificationsystemonwindpowerequipmentsintime,hydevelopmentofwindpowerindustry,connectionmanagementmeasuresofwindpowerfarm,whichadaptstoChinesepowergridcharacteristicsandlargewindpowergeneration,werstandards,whichisu,certificationisnotmandatory,,DenmarkandIndia,relevantcertificationinwindpowerfieldismandatory,andallwindturbinescant,butpromotestechnologyaccumulationandrealizethedestinatitprovidemodelparametersnowandareunabletomeettherequiremenrgescale,ifrelevanttechnologystandardswerenotperfectedandhealthycertificationsupervisionsystemwerenotimproved,windpowermarketfloodinglotsofbad-qualityequipmentswouldbringcatastrophicresult.ByLuZhongyuan,,irst20yearsofthiscenturywillexperienceanewperiodforChinasdevelopment,capproachtodevelopmentandforbuildingaharmonioussociety,Chinasdevelopmentinthisperiodshouldplacegreateremphasisonthehumanisticcharacterandtherequirementofsocialharmony,ontheoverallcoordinationofdevelopment,onthesustainabilityandcontinuityofdevelopment,plementingthescientificapproachtodevelopment,forinnov,namelyrelyingonscientificdevelopment,emphasizingindependentinnovation,improvingsystemsandmechanisms,,theplanalsodefinescleartargetsforimprovingthequali,enhancedefficiencyandreducedconsumption,%,energyconsumptionforunitGDPwillbeabout20%lowerthanattheendofthe10thFive-YearPlan,waterconsumptionforunitindustrialaddedvaluewillbe30%lower,ecologicaldegradationwillbebasicallycontained,,thetargetforunitGDPenergy%%annualenergyconservationrateduringthe1980~,thefactthattherateofenergyconservationhasde,Chinashouldplaceemphasisonenergyconservation,consumptionreduction,pollutionreduction,,thecountryshouldvigorouslyupgradethetechnologicahetechnologicalcontentsandimprovethequalityofitseconomicgrowthandtransformassoonaspossibleeconomicgrowthmodecharacterizedbyhighinput,highconsumption,highemission,lowoutput,lowefficiency,,ifChinaistoacceleratetransformingeconomicgrowthmode,iturgentlyneedstotakeindependenttechnologicalinnovationasapowerfuldrivingforceandabasicfoundation,andneedstocontinuemarket-orient,Chinadectment,,Chinadecidedtoconductastrategiceconomicrestructuring,increasethecontributionofscientificadvancementandstructuraloptimizationtoeconomicgrowth,,thecountryhasmadeameasureofachievementsinchangingeconomicgrowthmode,withtheintensaveragelevel,,Chinawillplaceevengreateremphasisonconservingenergyandotherresourcesandenhancingtheefficiencyofresourceutilization,oncarryingoutindependentinnovationandincreasingthetechnologicalcontentofeconomicgrowth,onprotectingtheecologicalenvironmentanddevelopingtherecycleeconomy,ontakinganewapproachtoindustrializationandpromotingtheoptimizationandupgradingoftheindustrialstructure,andonintensifyingreformsinmoredifficultareasandf,thepriorityareastospeeduptransformingeconomicgrowthmodewillbemoreclearlyhModeInimplementingthescientificapproachtodevelopment,acceleratingthetransformationofeconomicgrowthmodeandmakingdevelopmentinvariousfieldsmorecomprehensive,coordinatedandsustainable,theeffortstoreformthefiscalandtaxsystems"construction-orientedfinance"prevalentintheperiodofplannedecoostrengthentheirpublics,ventionintheeconomy,whichisunfavorablefo,thepublicfinancesystemisnotsoundandthetransformatiosboundstoooften,andthespendingdesignedtomakeupthe"functionalabsence"inthepublicservicesectorremainsinsufficient,~2005period,theshareoffiscalexpenditureonscienceandtechnology,educationandhealthcare,%%....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.智尊手机app下载地址GaoShiji,ZhangYongweiWangQingTherecentadoptionoftheautoindustrypromotionplanbytheStateCouncilisastrategicmeasuretakenbyChinascatch-upeffortsintheareaoffueloilvehicles(inthisrespect,wesuggclesandhelpthelocal-brandcompactvehicleproducerstoaccumulatefundsfortechnologicaldevelopmentandscaleexpansion).Atthesametime,weshouldrealizethattheautoindustryaroundtheworldismovingtowasautoindustrypromotionstraefieldoftraditionalfuelvehiclessoastofullymeetbothdomesticandforeigndemands,Chinashouldactivelydevelopnew-energyvehiclesandnewtechnologiessoastomakebreakthroughs,formnewadvantagesandpursueatruegrowthofChinaeteandCoexistwithEachOtherandEnergy-EfficientandNew-EnergyVehiclesRepresenttheDirectionofIndustrialDevelopmentFormorethantwodecades,themultinationalautogiantshavebeendevelopingenergy-efficie:advanceddieselvehicles,non-conventionalfuel(suchasbiologicalfuel),therechargeablecellvehiclescanbeclassifiedintohybridelectricvehicles(HEV)thatcannotuseexternalpowersourcetorecharge,plug-inhybridelectricvehicles(PHEV)thatcansimultaneouslyusefueloilenginesandexternalplug-inrecharging,andthepureelectricvehicles(EV),,theratioofdieselcarstonewly-addedcarshasbeenrisingrapidly,accountingfor50%,twomodelsofhybridvehicles,namelyToyotaPriusandHondaInsight,,,Priusisnotsoremarkabl,theUnitedStatesandJapanhavemadesustainedinvestmentsindevelopingthefuelcelltechnoechnologyandrelatedcost,theyarefacinghugeobstaclesineconomicefficiency(suchasbiologicalfuel)vehicleshavebeenmassusedinvariouspartsoftheworld(suchasinBrazil).Buttheyaresubjecttotheimpactoffactorssuchasrawmaterialproduction(competingwithhumanbeingsforfoodandland),cost,economicefficiency,andthepowerefficiencyofmixedfuels,andcanhathiumcellsinrecentyears,thetechnologiesofplug-inhybridelectricvehiclesandpu,thecontinuousdrivingmileageinpureelectricmodeofplug-inhybridelectes:technicalperformance(safetyandcontinuousdrivingmileage),economicefficiency(initialpurchasecostandusecost),andconvenienceefficiency(whetherrechargingorcellchangingcanbeconductedconvenientlyandrapidly).Currently,theplug-inhy,NissanandMitsubishiinJapan,GMintheUnitedStatesandRenaultinFrancehaveallintensifiedtheirtechnologicalresearchandproductdevelopmentforplug-inhybridelectricvehiclesandpureelectricvehicles,andhavepubliclyanncommercialplug-inhybridelectricvehicles(double-modeF3DM)attheendof2008andexhibitedattheDetroitAutoShowinmid-Jan,theUnitedStatesandEuropehavealsoexhibitedtheprototypesofplug-inhybridelyhigh,buttheirusecostislowandth,,formerIntelPresident,hasrepeatedlysaidsince2008thatit,PresidentBarackObamaexplicitlysaidtheUnite,2008,thattheFederalGovernmentwou,,durin,itwilltakealongtscalculation,itwilltake10yearsforelectricvehiclestoaccountfor5%ofthe250millionvehiclesintheUnitedStateseveniftenauticterrequirementsonenvironmentalpollution,greenhousegasemissionandautoenergyefficiency,therelativeusecostofelectricvehicleswillbeevenlowerandsuchvehiclescanrapidlyenteravirtuouscycleof“demandgrowth–productionexpansion–rapidcostdeclineandconstanttechnologicalmaturityandimprovement–furthersalesgrowth”.Inthatcase,electricvehicleswillbepopularizedsooner....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.

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金牛试玩注册送38优博app 官方网站HanJunCuiChuanyiRuralmigrantworkersareanewworkforceagainstthebackdropofChinasreedthatin2006theirrespectivelocalities,whichwasover40%seconomicdevelopmentandadvancingthechangeofChinadirectbearingonthesettlementoftheissuesofagriculture,ruralareasandfarmers,butalsohasastakeinthesounddevelopmentofChinasindustrializationandurbanization,insocialjusticeandharmony,inconstructingamoderatelypantworkersunderthenewcircumstancesareasfollows:planningemploymentinbothurbanandruralareasasawholeandpromotingemploymentbycreatingbusinessstartupsinapersistentwayinthelightofthescientificoutlookondevelopmentandinlinewiththelawofeconomicandsocialdevelopmentandthewillofhundredsofmillionsofruralmigrantworkers;takingtheprincipleofputtingpeoplefirstandtreatingruralmigrantworkersimpartiallyandequallyasthefundamentalrequirementforproperlyhandlingtheissuesofruralmigrantworkers;takingthetaskofturningmoreruralmigrantworkersintourbaninhabitantsasabasicobjective;facilitatingthereformofthedualsystemsseparatelyenforcedforurbanandruralareas;advancingtheinstitutionalinnovationandguidingareasonableandorderlyflowofruralmigrantworkers;strengtheningtheprotectionofruralmigrantworkersrightsandinterests,ensuringanequalenjoymentofbasicurbanpublicservicesamongruralmigrantworkersandimprovingtheoverallqualitiesofruralmigrantworkers;establishingandimprovingaunifiedhumanresourcemarketandacceleratingtheestablishmentofaunifiedsocialmanagementsystemforbothurbanandruralareastoguaranteeidenticalcitizenshipsandequalopportunitiesandrights;strivingtohelpruralmigrantworkerstobecomeskilledworkersforemployment,toenterintolaborcontracts,tohaveguaranteedwages,toenjoyinjury,diseaseandendowmentinsurances,tobecomecapableofprotectingtheirrightsandinterestsandtoimprovetheirhousingconditions;andenabli,trendsandissuesfacingChinasruralmigrantworkers,thetaskforceonStrategicIssuesConcerningChinasRuralMigrantWorkersundertheDevelopmentResearchCenteroftheStateCouncilhasputforwardthestrategicframeworktheimprovementofthestabilityandqualityofemploymentamongruralmigrantworkersasthegoal,weshouldlayemphasisontheculovernmentandjointlyrunbythegovernmentandthenon-governmentalsectors,whichlinkstheareassupplyingorabsorbingruralmigrantworkersandconmarketdemand,thepurchaseoftrainingachievementsbythegovernment,thefaircompetitionbetweenpublicandprivatetrainingagencies,thechoiceoftrainingagenciesbyfarmersontheirworkersbyawidemargin,setupthejointtrainingfundsupplymechanismbetweenthegovernment,enterprisesandruralmigrantworkers,cou%ofworkerswagesaccordingtoregulationasthefundsforthevocationalandskilltrainingamongruralmigrantworkersandencouragelargeenterprisesandtradeassociationstoinitiateworkersschoolsandsch,bygrantingfinancialsubsidies,reducetheexpensesspentbyruralmigrantworkersonparticipationinappraisaloftheirvocationalskills,soastoenabletheruralmigrantworkersinvolvedinthetrainingstoacquire,throughappraisal,relatedprofessionalcredentialsorsomesinglecertificateontheirvocaountiesandpracticethegratuitousvocationaleducationinruralareasWeshouldindaryvocationalschools(includingpolytechnicschools)andtrainingbases,putapremiumontheestablishmentofschoolsandtheenrollmentofstudentsthroughjointeffortsbyurbanandruralareasandbyChinaseastern,centraraduates,whohavefailedtogainaccesstosecondaryvocationaleducation,tohavevocationaitruralseniormiddleschoolgraduatesorgraduatesofsecondaryvocationalschools....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.ByChenChangsheng,DepartmentofMacroeconomicResearch,theDRCHighsavingsrateisanimportantfactortosupportChina,anundulyhighsavingsratecancauseinsufficientconsumption,whichhasalsobecomeaprominentproblemaffectingthegrowthofChina,itcanhardlyworkouttarge,itshouldanalyzethestructuralfeaturesofpersonalsavings,andidentifywhichsectors,whatmassgroupsanrsWasMainlyAttributedtoHigherCorporateandGovernmentSavingsWhileRateofPersonalSavingsOnlyWentUpbyaNarrowMarginThechangestothefundflowtablewhichcanbestreflectthestructureofnationalincomedistributionindicatethatChina%%in2005(Chinabegantocompilefundflowtablein1992,andtheta).Thestructureofprimarydistributionindicates:first,theproportionoflaborpayrelatedtoaddedvaluehasbeenonthedecline,at62%in1993,47%in2004andslightlyhigherin2005;second,althoughpersonalsavingsratealsowentupslightly,itsproportionintotalsavingshasbeendroppingandthoseofenterprisesandgovernmentdepartmentshavebeenvisiblyrisingandpostinghighercontributionrates(Table1).Inparticular,orchangesinthepersonalincomerecei,therehavebeenetotheincomeofgovernmentdepartments(Table2).Meanwhile,ChinasGiniCoefficientcontinuedtorise,lyimprovedtheincomeofther,tosomeextent,me(%)

ByFengJie,ZhangJunkuoGaoShiji,,2008Overall,Chinadegrees,thefactorscausingindustrialinstabilityaregraduallyreducing,andvariousregionshaveformedgoodexperi,duetotheimpactandrestraintofvariousfactors,somecitiesarestillobsessedbyrelevantproblems,suchasthedifficultytogetataxi,thepoorservicequality,thesubstandardoperationalmanagement,therampantillegaloperations,theproblematicrelationsbetweendriversandenterprises,,thetheoreticalcircle,themanagementdepartments,theoperatingcompanies,thedriversandtheconsumersallhaveputforwardtheiropini,standardizethetaximanagementandpromotethehealthydevelopmentofthetaxiindustry,theDevelopmentResearchCenteroftheStateCouncilformedaspecialresearchprojectteamtoexaminethetaxidevelopmentandmanagementinthecitiesofBeijing,Wenzhou,Wuhan,Shenyang,Taiyuan,Chongqing,Guangzhou,staxiindustry,itisbelievedthatindustrialdefinition,regulatorymethods,transferofoperationalright,operationalmodels,illegaltaxis,illegaltaxioperations,andrelationsbetweenenterprisesanddriversarethecoreissuesconcerningthecurrentmanagementanddevelopmentofChinantofthetaxiindustryandpromoteasustained,steadyandhealthydevelopmentoftheindustry,,Chinamusttakeintoaccountthemaximizationofsocialwelfareandstrikeabalanceintheinterestpursuitbetweenallthestakeholders,includingtheconsumers,theoperators,,Chinashouldconsiderthenatureofthetaxioperationalright,thetransferoftheserights,themodelsofindustrialoperationandthemodelsofgovernmentregulation,fromtheperspecteimportantlywemuststudytheissuesconcerningthedevelopmentandmanagementofthetaxiindustryaccordingtothefeaturesofChinaseconomicandsocialdevelopmentatpresentstage,:SupplementtoLarge-CapacityPublicTransportationThedefinitionofthetaxiindustryconstituscurrentnationalconditions,taxisshouldbedefinedasasupplementtothelarge-capacitypublictratransportationsystems(suchasbuses,subwaysandlightrails),,taxisinvolvefairlyhigroadresources,,theproblemssuchasoverpopulation,land,developinglarge-capacitypublictransportationsystemsasapriorityshouldbealong-termstrategyandacco,suchadefinitioncannotdistinguishprioritiesandcanleadtoamisunderstandingthattaxisshouldalsoenjoygo,beforethelarge-capacitypublictransportationsystemsareconstructedandimproved,taxisinmanycitiesandespeciallysmallcitiesareanimportantmeansoftransportationandpl,evenwhenthelarge-capacitypublictransportationsystemsarewelldeveloped,taxisarestillameansofpublictransportationrequiredtomeetthespecialtransportationdemandoftheresidents,suchastransportationtoairports,,asthelarge-capacitypublictransportationsystemshavelimitationsinservicenetworksandoperatinghours,,whiletaxisshouldnotbetakenasthemainmeansofpublictransportation,theyareunsubstitutableandcans,taxisshouldbeincorporatedintotheintegratedtransportationsystemsandespeciallythoseintheurbanareas,:Government-FranchisedOperationRegulatingthetaxiindustrythroughgovernment-franchisedoperationmeansthegovernmentshouldnotonlyregulatethefareandquantityoftaxis,butalsoexercxiindustry,differentcountrieshavedifferentexperience,:,fthetaxiindustrybutalsoontheenvironmentforthedevelopmentofthisindustry.ByZhaoJinping,ResearchTeamonEconomicTrendAnalysis,ResearchDepartmentofForeignEconomicRelations,~3YearsAreRequiredtoEliminatetheImpactofCreditSqueezeCurrently,,thepressuretestresultoffinancialinstitutionsindicatesthattheleadandiswithinthe,theconfidenceoffinancialmarketshassomewhatpickedup,withtheleadingstockmarketsbeginningtobounceback,,thepossibilitythattherecessionofthereal,theeconomiesinEurope,theUnitedStatesandJapa,icexpectationfrom"continueddrasticdeterioration"to"deteriorationbeginningtoease",,%havingbeenmaterialized,,manyprivatefundsarewillingtoparticipatebecauseanacquisitionframeworkhasbeenformedforgate,therehavebeenconcernsearlierthatthedebtandeconomiccrisishittingsomecountriesinEastandCentralEuropemightburdenthefinantrengthafterthe20-nationLondonconference,thefundingasstabilizehasalsoproduce,SouthKoreaseconomicgrowthinthefirstquarterwasbetterthaninthefourthqua,~,thenonperformingasssexperienceindicatesthataftertheburstofitsbubbleeconomy,ittookabouttwoandcgrowth,theworldeconomicsituationconfrontingthe,thenumberoflocalbankbankruptciesintheUnitedStateshasrisento36sincethebeginningofthisyear,morethanthetotalnumberof25registeredinthewholeyearof2008."Problembanks"are20%,themajorfinan,threebanksinGermanyandSwitzerlandstillhavethehrtotalprofitforthefirsttimeinthefinancialyearendinginMarch,,,21commercialbanksintheUnitedStateswhichhadr%ngEconomiesAreMoreLikelytoBottomoutThisYearInthefirstquarterof2009,%,%%,,theeconomiesintheUnitedStates,%,%%,theleadingdevel,althoughindustrialproductionhasyettoovercomeitsyear-on-yeardecline,%in,thecompositeindexofleadingindicatorsoftheWorldMajorEnterprisesAssociationintheUnitedStatesrose1%,thisindexus,thefinancialmarketsintheUnitedStates,EuropeandJapanallsawtheirlong-terminterestratesrisingsinceApril,,theconsumerconfidenceindexintheUnitedStatespostedasharpriseoverthepreviousmonth,,theeconomicstimuluspackagesofthelead,JaheUnitedStates,%,%%,theprojecti,%,,Japanseconomicdeclinein2009mayshrinkfromtheearlierprojected5%toabout3%.Therefore,wecandeterminethattheeconomicdownturnintheleadingdevelopedcountrieswilleasevisiblyinthesecondandt,creditsqueezeisunlikelytobefundamentall,evenifthedevelopedeconomiesmoveoutofrecession,ages,wecannotruleoutthepossibilitythattheseeconomieswillfallag,theworldeconomywillexperienceaprocessfeaturingalowgrowthrateandatortuousrecoveryinthe2~3yearsfrom2010.

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ByHanJun,Director-GeneraloftheResearchDepartmentofRuralEconomy,uldBeaUniversalGuidancefortheWholeCountryBuildinganewsocialistcountrysideisamajorstrategicdecisionmadebythecentralgovernmentinlightoftheoverallconsiderationtoharmonizenditions,theirbasiccon,differentregionsshoulingagriculture,ruralareasandfarmers,andshouldstriveforgreaterprogressinraisingthelevelofagriculturalmodernization,improvingthelivingenvironmentofthevillages,improvinginfrastructureandpubl,ionsnotedforweakindustrialbasisandlotsofurbanproblems,,theoverallleveloftheirruraldevelopmentisfarlowerthanthatinthedevelopedregionsalongtheseacoastandthe,thecentralandwesternunderdevelopedregionsshouldtakethebuildingofanewcountrysideasaworkpriorityoftheirPartycommitteesandgovernmentsatvariouslevelsinac,farmersintheunderdevelopedregionsarestillnotrich,whenpushforwardthebuildingofanewcountryside,localgovernmentsshouldstrictlyobservetherelevantstatepoliciesonpreventingfromincreasingthefarmers’burdens,preventi,theyshouldplaceemphasisonthemostelementaryissuessuchasimprovingthebasiclivingconditionsofthefarmers,diversifyingthechannelstoincreasetheincomeofthefarmers,,pushingforwardthebuildingof,thestatewillgivenecessarysupporconstesConcerningAgriculture,RuralAreasandFarmersorBecomeaCompletelyNewEndeavorDuringtheEleventhFive-YearPlanperiod,Chinamademajorbreakthroughsinimprovingitspoliciesconcerningagriculture,,theimportanceoftheissuesconcerningagriculture,ruralareasandfarmerstotheoverallmodernizationdrivewasclearlydefined,citingapropersolutionoftheissuesconcerningagriculture,ruralarea,majorpolicieswereclearlydefinedforapropersolutionoftheissuesconcerningagriculture,ingagriculture,,thePartyputforwardanimportant"two-trends"notion,whichclearlychartedtheguidingprinciplesfromtheoverallandstrategicperspectivesforsolvingtheissuesconcerningagriculture,ruralareasandfarmersinthenewperiodandsetthebasictuneforChinatoformamechanisminthenewsituation,thro,aseriesofpolicieswereformulatedtopromotegrainproduction,easethefarmers’burden,promotemigrationofsurplusrurallaborandincreasethefarmers’earPlanindicatedthatunderthecorrectguidanceofthestate’smacropolicies,,,farmers’incomecontinuedtorise,,,SessionoftheSixteenthCPCCentralCommitteeisacontinuationoftheguidingprinciplesofsolvingthedualisticstructuralcontradictionbetweentheurbanandruralareasandemphasizingabalancedurban-ruraldevelopmentfor,buildinganewcountrysideshouldnotbedivorcedfromtheexistingpoliciesdesignedtosolvetheissuesconcerningagriculture,,,itisnecessarytoearnestlyimplementtheParty’spoliciesoncountryside,stabilizeandconstantlyimprovethebasicoperatingsystemsintheruralareas,givetopprioritytothedevelopmentofruralproductivity,intensifysupporttoagricultureandtheruralareresentsahigherandclearerdemandforsolvingtheissuesconcerningagriculture,ruralareasandfarmersandalsoanewdevelopmentopportunityforagricultureandfarmers.

九号CQ9钟馗运财LiuShijin,YuBin,ZhangLiqun,YangJianlong,LiJianwei,ChenChangshengFangJinThereweresignstharnmentanditsgradualeffect,theen,weshouldattachgreatimportanttoissuessuchassharpeningemploymentcontradictionsrelatedtoeconomicoperation,dramaticdeclineofenterprisesperformance,inflationarypressurerelatedtotheswiftgrowthofcreditf,macroeconomicpoliciesshouldfocusonpromotingthereboundofmarket-drivendomesticdemand,whilemaintainingthescopeandeffectivenessofgovernmentinvestments,avoidingasecondrincethesecondhalfof2008,%%,whichwasnotonlyduetotheimpactofinternationalfinancialcrisisandaconspicuousslowergrowthofworldeconomy,butalsorelatedtothefactthatdomesticleadingsectors,suchasrealestateandautoindustries,entereda,thedevelopmentpatternonwhicheconomicgrowthhasbeenrelyingforalongperiodoftimewasbolsteredbylowpriceandhighinvestmentofelements,suchaslaborforce,landandresources,soitbecomesdifficulttokeepitsustainedwhensignificantchangestakeplaceininternationalanddomesticsituation,,thegro,thechangeinmarketexpectationsandreflectionofenterprises,theover-pessimisticexpectationsweregraduallymultiplied,andthemark,heavyindustrywhichholdsaconsiderablysignificant,lotsofintermediateproductsandlargeinvestmentdemand,oncetheultimatedemandshrinks,itseffectwillspreadalongtheindustrialc,withahighforeigntradedependenceratio,pricesofcommoditiesagainstthebackgroundoffinancialspeculationininternationalmarketsdramaticallydeclinedandimposedsevereimpactsondomesticpricesystem,whichgeneratedthephenomenonof"over-adjustment",differentfrompreviousones,wasbasedontheconditionsofChina,enterp,lackingofcareformarketchanges,imulusmeasuresaccordingtothechangesininternationalanddomesticeconomicsituation,includingdramaticallyincreasingfinancialinputandimplementingstructuraltaxreduction,establishingamassiveplanforindustryadjustmentandreinvigoration,providingvigoroussupporttoscien,,,i,somekeyindicators,s,,%.Fourth,thedeclineofoutputandsalesvolumeofkeyproducts,suchaspowergeneration,rawcoal,cement,steel,,lastQ4andQ1in2009,thesituationofmajoreconomiessuchastheUnitedStates,,domesticinvestmentandconsumptiondemandsaretobefurtherlaunched,andthedownwardpre,%,th%yearonyear,%,theresultofaquestionnaireconductedbyChineseEntrepreneurSurveySystemonover1,000entrepreneursshowedthatover50%ofentrep,someeconomicindicatorsarereturningtonormalintheshortrun,overalleconomicoperationispreliminarilystabilizing,eryoftheOverallEconomyThefactorsinfluencingeconomicgrowthforthewholeyearcanbeobservedfromthreeaspectsincludingforeigndemand,tent,,therecoveryofmarket-d,butthepossibilityoffurtherslideisnotexcludedForeigndemanddramaticallydeclinedowingtotheimpactofinternationalfinancialcrisisandeconomicrecession,anditisinevitableforChina,foreignimportersdramaticallycompressedstockinordertolowermarketrisksandreducetied-upfunds,,theexchangerateofsomecountriesdramaticallydepreciated,whichdamagedthecompetitivenessofChinasexportreportednegativegrowthonayear-on-yearbasisinlastNovember,,processingtrade-orientedITproductsbecamethemainfactorthatdraggedexportslide,whilethedeclineofexportvolumeoflightindustryandtextileproducts,suchasgarments,shoes,,,thankstotheincreasedexportrebateratesforlabor-intensiveproducts,thereisasignificantreboundinexports,,,exportsinprocessingtradedroppedlessthanthatinJan,,Americancommoditiesandothershopsfordailynecessities,exclusiveboutiquesforclothing,furniturestoresandnon-fuelcommoditiesofWal-Mart%,%,%%,asdevelopedcountrieshavetakeneconomicstimulusplansinsuccession,ifprivateconsumptionceasestoslip,inventoryadjustmentsofoverseasretailerswillbecompletedinthesecondquarter,,whileexportgrowthdramaticallysloweddowninbothJanuaryandFebruary,%yearonyear....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,:LiuShijin,JinRenqing,:ofthetaskforceparticipatedinthediscussion.ByZhangJunkuoResearchReportNo047,2006Theimportanceofcompetitiononraisingeconomicefficiencyandim’sreformandopening-upisthatwhereverthestatemonopolyisbrokenandcompetitionisintroduced,vitalitywillbeinjected;theproductandservicequalitywillbeimproved;whereverthestatemonopolyismaintained,theproductandservicequalityareno,economicpracticehasalsoprovedthattheimprovementofeconomicefficiencyisnotonlydeterminedbytheopeningofaccessandintroductionofcompetition,,orderlyandfairmarketcompetitionisc,disorderlyandunfaircompetitionwilldamageeffectivenessofmarketmechanism,,maintainingasoundcompetitionorderi,howtoguaranteeasufficient,orderlyandfairmarketc,competitionpoChangesTheoretically,,regulations,,regulations,policyand,inadditiontothecompetitionpolicyinanarrowsense,suchpolicyalsoinvolvesthepoliciesofprivatization,deregulation,subsidy,internationaltradeandforeigninvestmentpolicies,eandimp,themainfactorsrestrictingthemarketcompetitionmayvarywithdifferenteconomicsystems,differentstagesofe,fordevelopedWesterncountrieswherethemarketsystemsaremoremature,legalsystemsaremorecompleteandgovernmentconductsaremorestandardized,theproblemsinadministraelargesizeofenterprises,theprobleminbusinessmonopolyisusuallyprominent,andthefocu,theessentialproblemisobviouslynottocheckunfaircompetitionorbusinessmonopoly,astheeconomyisbasicallybuiltontheplannedeconomy,whichismonopolizedbythestate,are,first,hoketeconomy,theproblemssuchasnon-standardizedmarketentities,unfaircompetition,includingmisuseofdominantpositioninthemarket,monopolyagreementsandmarketconcentration,theywouldobviouslybecomeaprominentproblemthatneedstobestressedbythecompet,foraneconomyinthecourseofsystemictransformation,,theproblemsthatfacepromotingand(forinstance,intheearlyperiodofsystemictransformation),themainissueisnottotacklebusinessmonopoly,buttoinentanti-monopolylaws,buttotransfergovernmentfunctions,establishmarketrulesandreformcorporatesystems,fChina’sReformBeforetheimplementationofreformandopening-uppolicyin1978,’;,,,in1978,morethan77%oftheindustrialoutputvaluewascontributedbythestate-ownedenterpriseswhilecollectivefirmsturnedoutmorethan22%.,,,Chinastartedtoimplementthemarket-orientedpolicyofreformandopening-up,thecorecontentwastochangetheplannedsystem,,manyofthereformpolicies,suchasderegulatingandgivingupthecontrolofmandatoryplans,reformingstate-ownedenterprises,developingprivateenterprisesandlooseningthepricecontrol,,,,,thecountryisfacingexcessivecompetition,notinadequatecompetition.

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官方网站Accordingtotheindicessuchastheproportionofoverseasturnoversinthecompany’stotalturnovers,globalresourcesdistributionandoperationalcapability,enterprises’overseasoperationcouldbeclassifiedintothreestages–internationalized,,throughitspreliminarystudy,holdsthatChina’senterpriseswithoverseasoperationarebasicallyattheprimaryinternationalizedstage,asmallportionofenterpriseshasstartedtheirtransnationaloperation,andofthem,a’sentelizedoperationsarewidelydistributedamongtheindustries,andsomehighlyexport-orientedenterprisesinallindustriesarealmostatthisstage,alindustries,manyenterprises’proportionsoftheiroverseasmarkethavegrownconsiderably,manyenterpriseshavetheirownindependentdepartmentsresponsibledirectlyfortheirexports,andsomeenterpriseshavetheirownoverseasm’senergy,steel,andchemicalindustries,somelarge-scaleenterpriseshaveinvestedinoverseasresourcebases,manyenterprisesareconductingexportandoverseasoperations,,telecommunicationsandtrade,somelarge-scalecompanieshavemanyoverseasnetworkoutletsandbusinessactivities,theirmainbusinesses,however,ibutedintheindustrieswhicharehighlyinternationalizedandinwhichChina’senthaveaccountedforabigproportionoftotalbusinesses,andtheyhaveestablishedtheirmarketingser,electronic,’senterprisesinthiscategoryareusuallyhighlycompetitiveonthematuredoverseasmiddleandlow-grademarket,,andtheamountanddepthoftheiroverseasmarketingandmanufacturingnetworks,asmallnumberoflargeenterprisesinChina’sIT,electronicandelectromechanicalindusbalresources,however,theseenterprises,Huawei,TCLandHaierintheITandelectronicindustriesandWanxiangintheautomobilepartsindustryareactuallypioneeringenterprisesinthemoveofChina’,Lenovo,TCLandHaierhaveallcarriedoutmergerandacquisitionactivitiesontheoverseasmarket,andWanxianghasbeguntomakeinvestmentoverseasfrom1992andhasacquir’sEnterprisesCarryoutTransnationalMergerandAcquisition:AnObservationandPreliminaryAnalysisTransnationalMAisanimportantwayforente,China’senterprises,especiallyforthoseenterprisesintheautomobile,IT,electronic,energyandsteelindustries,lytoobtainnaturalresources,andtransnationalMAbyenterprisesintheautomobi,particularlyMAactivitiesforthepurposeofobtainingnaturalresources,themajorityofdomesticpeoplecouldunderstandtheirmotivationsandconditions,,becausetheymainlytargetattheoverseasmarketandmainlyacquireintangibleassetssuchasbrands,channelsandRDteams,orinotherwords,softassets,peopleinCmarketshares,includingthehigh-endmarketshare,’businessoperationsbyChineseenterprisesisa"frog-leap",andthenormalprocessshouldbeexports→establishmentofoverseasmarketingnetworks→establishmentofoverseasplants→ionalMAbyChineseenterprisesismainlytoacquiremarket(clients,channels),andthenstrategicassets(includingtechnology,brands,localservicecapability,manufacturingcapability,intellectualpropertyrightsandRDcapability)andefficiencyoflargescaleproduction(synergeticeffect).ThoseMAactivitiesaremainlyMAintermsofstockandassets,butinessence,ghtrelationshipafterMA,andtheseniormanagementsfrombothpartiesjointlyformtheseniormanagementofthenewcompany,anditismainlya"friendlyMA."TheWanxiangCompanyintheautomobilepartsindustryconductedseveraloverseasMA,forexpandingandaccumulatingknowledgeabouttheoverseasmarket,China’slargeenterprises’overseasoperations,China’slargeenterprisesconductoverseasMAmainlyaimedatobtainingmarketshareandstrategicassets,andimprovingefficiency(SeeTable2),whichenjoythesimilarmotivationoftheITenterprises’,particularlyadvancedenterprisesamongthem,begintoconductoverseasMAbeforebuildingastrongerfootholdonthedomesticmarketThepreliminaryanalysisofChina’sITenterprisesfoundthattherearethreemajorreasonsforChina’senterprisestobegintransnationalMAbeforebecomingstrongeronthedomesticmarket:China’senterprises’certaincomparativeadvantagesinsomefields,strategicchoiceconformtothechangesinindustrialenvironment,andtheawarenessandentrepreneurshiptoseizetheglobalizedopportunities.ByXiaBin,ResearchInstituteofFinance,theDRCResearchReportNo65,sStatusinEconomicGlobalizationChineseandfo,~1800,yearsfrom1800~,Iambasingmyanalysisonthetwo-s,,%,%ontheaverage;duringthesecondglobalizationbetween1950and1998,%.%between1500and1820,%%hetwostagesInthefirstglobalizationprocess,,namely,duringtheagriculturalsociety,theproportionofChinasGDPintheglobaltotalwasashighas33%orsoin1820,beingnearly30%morethantheGDPoftheWestEuropeancountriesplusAustralia,NewZealand,,duringthelatterperiodofthepreviousglobalization,orbeforetheoutbreakofWorldWarIin1913,theproportionofChina%,,since1950,theproportionofChina%in1978to6%in2007,afifteen-foldincreaseover30yearstime(atconstantprice),%%%in2007,growingby104timesover30yearstime,%.,ChinaWillStillBeanImportantBeneficiaryWhydidthefirstglobalizationbreakoffItwasmainlybecausethethenmajorcountriesviedwitheachotherforinterestsandtheirconflictsincontestingcoloniesresultedinawar,,(exports)proportionsocc,Britainwasakeycountryduringthefirstglobalization,%,theUnitedStates,withitseconomyhighlydeveloped,%ssharefromlastglobalization,theUn,%in2007,%%sexportproportionisfarlessthanthatofBritaininthefirstglobalizati,intermsofChinasdevelopmentatpresentstage,itis"worldmanufacturer"smore,theinternalandexternalcontradictionsrelatedtoChinaspresenteconomicdevelopmenth,China,whileenhancingthepeoplesconsumptionandsocialwelfare,isinneedofconsiderableoilsupplies,mineralresources,,,whatfactorscandeterminethatChinawillstillbeabeneficiaryaslongasglobalizationtrendgoesonFirstly,theturningpointrelatedtoChinaspopulationgrowthhasnotcompletelyarrivedandtheadvant,,,,,Chinaneedstofurtheritsreform,,basedonthesescenarios,Chinawillsurelybeawinneraslongasitadherestotheprincipleofmakingco-operationwithforeigncountriesformutualgainandsafeguards,althoughtradeprotectionismisrearinganuglyhead,,iesoutits"US-dominated",aslongastheUnitedStatesisstilldrivingforwardglobalization,,thepresentAmericanfinancialcrisisresultedfromtheAmericanlaborproduct,atpresentweshouldnotexpectthattheUnitedStatescouldgetridofthecrisisverysoon,becauseifitwerereallyso,theUnitedStateswouldissuealargenumberofcurrenciesthatcouldposeahiddenperilforthefuture.ByShiYaodong,,sfasteconomicgrowth,theinternalandexternalenvironment,an"infinitelaborsupply"and"lowcostcompetition"rttheprocenurbanandruralareasaredeviatingfromtheaimsofdevelopment,,thetradeclimate,thefinancialsystemandotherdestabilizingfactorsaremakingitmoreandmoredifficultfortheChineseecono,itmustfindanewdevelopmentpath,formanewdevelopmentimpetus,fost"infinitelaborsupply"and"lowcostcompetition"Halfacenturyago,ArthurLewis,EconomistoneconomicgrowthanddevelopmentandNobelPrizewinner,introducedthetheoryofeconomicgrowthundertheconditionof"infinitelaborsupply".Henotedthatbeforeachievingmodernization,thedevelopingcountrieswiththetypicalcharacteristicsof"dualisteconomy"couldhaveaninfinitelaborsupplyatasubsistencewagelevelforaconsiderablylongtime,whichwouldhelprealizelong-termeconomicgrowth(ArthurLewis,1954).BecauseofChinaseconomicrestructuringandsystemevolutionthatbeganfromtheruralareas,thesurpluslaborthathadlongbeenconfinedtothelow-efficientagriculturalsectorhasbeengr"infinitesupply"oflaborandamodelof"lowcostcompetition"(LiuShijing,2005).Asaresult,Chinasuccessfullyachievedaneconomictakeoff,%,,however,thediversefactorsthatconstitutedtheChineseeconomicmodelof"lowcostcompetition"begantochangequietly:First,thelaborpriceintheeastcoastalregionbegantorisegraduallyduetotheco-actionofdiversefactors,includingthechangeinthelabormarketsupply-demandrelation,thegradualdisappearanceof"populationdividend",theriseinthecomparativeadvantageofag,laborshortagebegantospreadfromthehigh-qualifiedlabormarket(skilledworkers)totheordinarylabormarket(laborers),2008whichfurtherstandardizedthelegalrelationsbetweenlaborandmanagement,,thetightercontroloverthelanduseforconstructionpurpose,theintroductionofthesystemonbasicfarmlandprotectionandthereformofthelandtender,auctionandlistingsyst,,whilethedemandforimportedcrudeoil,ironoreandotherimportantresourcescontinuedtorisedrastically,,theirCIFpriceswentupsharplyyearafteryearandinturnpushedupthepricesoffinishedoilproducts,,themarketsupplyofcoal,finishedoilproducts,electricityandotherenergyproductshasexperiencedfrequentshortages(coalshortage,oilshortageandelectricityshortage)duetothecoactionofthefactorssuchastherisingdemands,theincreaseinupstreamcosts,theinsufficienttransportcapacities,theadjustmentofcontrolledprices,,thecostofenvironmentalprotection,longregardedasanexogenousvariableofeconomicgrowth,hasbeengradually"internalized"byenterprisesbecausethegovernmenthasstrengthenedintegratedenvironmentprotectionaccordingtolaw(suchascollectingdepositfundsforecologicalenvironmentcompensationandintensifyingpunishmentonenvironmentalviolations).Six,theacceleratedrevaluationoftheChinese,2005,theyuanhasrevaluatedbyatotalof20%.Thishasbroughtanextre,theChineseeconomyinevitablybidfarewelltotheperiodof"infinitelaborsupply"andtheeraof"lowcostcompetition"gesInrecentyears,theChineseeconomyhaspaidahighpriceintheformsofresourceconsumptionandenvironmentaldeteriorationformaintainingatwo-digitgrowthrate.—sgrossdomesticproduct(GDP)%oftheglobaltotal,itsshareofglobalconsumptionis31%forrawcoal,30%forironore,27%forsteelproducts,25%foraluminumoxideand40%stotalenergyconsumptionforper10,000-yuanGDPisthreetimestheaverageleveloftheworld,,,sdomesticsupplyofsomeimportantmineralresourceshasbeenonthedecline,withthecrudeoilsimportdependencyapproaching50%.—ngindustries,theChineseeconomyhasdemonstratedatypicalinverseEnvironmentalKuznetsCurve(EKC).Landdesertification,waterpollution,pasture,naturaldisasterandextreme-climaticincidentshavebecomemorefrequent,thegreenhousegasemissionhasbeenrisingrapidly,thecoal-basedenergystructurehasaggravatedthespreadofacidraincoverage,,thedegradationoftheenvironmentandthelifeofpovertyhavefailedtomoveoutoftheirviciouscircles.

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